Underwater noise emitted during small-scale air entrainment events

Justyna Szuszkiewicz, Zygmunt Klusek

Spectrograms of averaged noise registered for 0.05 m height of the tipping trough in fresh water (a), water with surfactant (b), saline water (c) and water during the electrolysis process (d)

Paper category: Short communication
Corresponding author: Justyna Szuszkiewicz (justyna.szuszkiewicz@ug.edu.pl)
DOI: 10.1515/ohs-2018-0010
Received: 5 July 2017
Accepted: 29 September 2017
Full text: here


The breaking wave phenomenon significantly takes part in the mechanisms of mass, heat and gas exchange at the air-water boundary and depends on the wind velocity. Some of the energy dissipated during this process is converted into underwater sound emitted by oscillating gas bubbles and bubble plumes. However, the underwater noise accompanying the lowest wind speed conditions has received only a little attention. This report describes a study aimed at advancing the knowledge of underwater noise emission from air bubbles injected during small-scale breaking events occurring on the water surface. Results of model experiments performed in a small tank are presented. The object of the research is the relationship between the generated noise and the dissipated potential energy of water poured into a tank filled with water of varying physical water properties. Additionally, the impact of various water properties such as salinity, surface tension or microscale gas bubbles was examined. The experiment revealed that noise spectra are affected by different water properties and most likely reflect the varying efficiency of bubble formation and bubble size spectra.


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Department of Physical Oceanography, Institute of Oceanography, Faculty of Oceanography and Geography, Al. M. Piłsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland

Marine Acoustics Laboratory, Institute of Oceanology PAS, ul. Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot, Poland

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